Whole-Report Technique = Briefly show an array of letters, cover up, ask to report what they saw. Problem: Sensory memory has faded, as a slowness of responses.
Sperling's Partial Report Technique = Briefly show an array of letters, cover up, sound tone (different tones) to tell which row to report on. Multiply the number of correct items by the number of rows to obtain a measure of iconic memory storage. [FLASHED]
It assumes that since you could recall % in the bottom row, you could also do the same in the other rows. Avoids the problem of the slowness of responses leading to rapid fading. IV's:
- Change rows
- How long flashed
- Gap in time between
Findings: As time gap between the covering up of the array and the tone was increased, memory deteriorated rapidly. Icons last between 200 and 400 milliseconds. [RECALL 9 ITEMS]
Location of Iconic Memory - Stored in the brain.
There is also a link between poor iconic memory and reading disability.
Darwin's Research = Similar to Sperlings research but auditory stimuli. Groups 3 letters and numbers that are presented in different channels. Immediately after sounds, an image is presented to dictate which channel should be reported.
Findings: Cannot recall as many items with echoic memory but last longer. [RECALL 5 ITEMS]