How information is processed, with deep meaningful information last longer than shallow, sensory types of information.
Maintenance rehearsal/Sound & appearance is shallow.
Elaborative Rehearsal/Meaning is deep.
Encoding produces a memory trace that keeps deeply processed information for a longer duration than shallow information.
Face Recognition: Better with judgements about a person's character rather than physical appearance.
The Self-Reference Effect: People are more likely to recall material if it has been coded in relation to themselves. Elaborate examples also help a lot.
- Distinctiveness (strong & durable)
- Elaborateness (meaning)
Applications of the Self-Reference Effect: Advertisers make ad's using shallow processing, to encourage people to make self-references.