How information is processed, with deep meaningful information last longer than shallow, sensory types of information.

Maintenance rehearsal/Sound & appearance is shallow.

Elaborative Rehearsal/Meaning is deep.

Encoding produces a memory trace that keeps deeply processed information for a longer duration than shallow information.

Face Recognition: Better with judgements about a person's character rather than physical appearance.

The Self-Reference Effect: People are more likely to recall material if it has been coded in relation to themselves. Elaborate examples also help a lot.

  • Distinctiveness (strong & durable)
  • Elaborateness (meaning)

Applications of the Self-Reference Effect: Advertisers make ad's using shallow processing, to encourage people to make self-references.

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