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What trend has been noticed over the last several decades in terms of atmospheric moisture content? Why does this trend exist?

What is the ITCZ? How does its movement produce the Asian monsoon?

Describe the process of ocean current reversal that occurs with an El Niño event.

How are winds, the Coriolis effect, and pressure gradients related?

What are the various temperature layers of the ocean? What does the thermocline represent?

Explain the importance of winter storms in the western United States.

How are Rossby waves related to the poleward heat transfer?

What is meant by ‘range of response’?

Over the past century, how have the number of disastrous natural hazards occurring in London compared with the number of disastrous anthropogenic (i.e. human-generated) hazards?

Give two negative impacts of the improvement of water supply facilities in the Sahel region of Africa which lead to a new type of hazard there.

Why is California’s Central Valley so important to U.S. agriculture?

How do farmers in the region obtain water for their fields?

When a similar drought impacted Australia, how did that country respond?

Explain the science behind how El Niño and La Niña are able to influence weather patterns worldwide?

With respect to the polar jet stream, how does a warming global climate lead to more extreme weather?

Explain how the interaction between the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate led to the earthquake. For how long does this type of interaction occur before a major earthquake happens?

Why did the height of the tsunami vary by location within Japan?

Describe the history of African American interregional migration in the US

Describe how nationalism acts as a “centripetal force”

Pick one country in Western Asia and describe its ethnic diversity.

Explain why we need to divide the Earth into time zones.

How were the nomadic responses to hazards different than our responses today?

Who was the first person to question the traditional ways that hazards were to be controlled? Describe the impact this had on hazard research.

What are some examples of chronic hazards? What sets these hazards apart from others?

How do fractures contribute to erosion?

Give two negative impacts of the improvement of water supply facilities in the Sahel region of Africa.

Rank the locations in terms of their maximum albedo values from least albedo to most?

He is associated with use of the Pythagorean Theorem & observation to estimate the circumference of the earth, 1700 years before Columbus’ voyages?

When using an automobile to describe an open system, which of the following is not considered an output from the system?

Which one of the earth's four spheres is not abiotic?

Why is the International Dateline not a straight line along the 180 th Meridian?

Which of the following landmasses (areas) would be most distorted on a map using a Mercator Projection?

Which of the following is not an example of a contour line?

The tilt of the earth's axis is?

What is the primary UV-b blocking gas(es)?

What type of industries are most responsible for the creating of industrial smog?

Which of the following has the highest albedo (reflects the most incoming energy)?

Conduction refers to?

The lapse rate in the earth's atmosphere refers to changes in temperature related to?

This term refers to the passage of shortwave and longwave energy through ! either the atmosphere or water?

Geographer Fred Kniffen traced the pattern of three different folk housing types in the U.S.

Folk clothing styles sometimes create controversy where popular clothing preferences dominate.

Gases and liquids transfer energy by a type of movement that involves physical mixing and a strong vertical motion. What is this type of movement called?

What season of the year is it in Antarctica in December?

Which of the choices is an instrument that measures air pressure?

Survival activities and leisure activities both fall under the definition of?

The main effect of modern communications on social customs has been to?

The use of a horse and buggy by the Amish in the United States is an example of a?

Folk cultures are spread primarily by?

A repetitive act performed by an individual is a?

The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of a group of people is a?

In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is typical of?

Jeans provide a good example of material culture that is adopted by a number of different societies. This refers to what type of material culture?

In contrast to popular culture, folk cultures are more likely to vary?

The climate of Italy can be classified as which Koppen-Geiger type?

The climatic environment of southern Norway can be best described mainly as:

The term “continentality” refers to:

Jamaica belongs to which sub-region of the Middle American realm?

One of the following regions IS NOT included among the world's great population clusters:

Various economic and social criteria that can be used to classify world regions include the following:

On your travels through Europe in your rented BMW, you are driving through the Czech Republic. You are in fact travelling through:

The Pyrenees are a part of which European topographic region?

Which of the following is one of the main geographical qualities of Europe?

Which of the following is NOT among the characteristic features of Europe’s climate?

Which of the following regarding historical development of Europe is FALSE?

Which of the following European countries is essentially multi-lingual?

Which one of the following IS a nation-state?

What advantage did the Western European states have in their emergence toward the Modern Era (since the 1500s)?

Which of the following regarding Scandinavian Europe is INCORRECT?

The European Union originated as:

The term "Shatter Belt" refers to:

The term "Balkanization" refers to:

The Marshall Plan was introduced to Europe:

The Alpine Mountain System:

The Industrial Revolution occurred in England partly as a result of:

Which of Europe’s micro-states is located between Belgium, Germany and France?

Which of the following is FALSE with respect to Eastern Europe?

Which of the following is TRUE regarding Western Europe?

Which of the following countries are NOT members of the EU?

Which of the following regarding Europe is TRUE?

Which of the two Russian states were the first ones to emerge on the East Russian Plain toward the latter part of the first millennium AD?

The Russian Empire expanded into Central Asia during:

During the Soviet times, the city of St. Petersburg was called:

The Tatar (Mongol) state in southern Russia that had dominated the area for several hundred years was called:

Russia's permanent access to the Baltic Sea was accomplished by:

Food taboos usually derive from unique elements of the physical environment.

Which of the following regarding the results and consequences of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution is FALSE?

The Soviet Union was established primarily:

Which of the following regarding Russia’s & the former USSR’s topography is TRUE?

If for some strange reason you would find yourself stuck in the middle of Western Siberian Lowland, you would be:

You would most likely find the coldest winters in the former USSR in:

The mountain range that forms the topographic boundary between Europe and Asia in southern Russia is:

Which of the following regarding the population distribution in Russia is TRUE?

The population of Siberia and the Russian Far East is, in term of total numbers, mainly:

When it comes to territorial size, Russia is very close to:

The only year-round ice-free Arctic coast in Russia is located in:

With respect to population density, one of the following does NOT belong to the following group:

You are visiting the city of St. Petersburg, and enjoying yourself tremendously. You are in:

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Mainland of Middle America?

The two Middle American countries with strong Amerindian influence in their culture:

Which of the following Middle American countries is predominantly Amerindian?

Which climatic type is found in northern Mexico close to the border with New Mexico and Arizona?

Which of the following regarding Mexico is TRUE?

The term “Maquiladora” refers to:

Two main economic activities on which the majority of the Caribbean economies are dependent include:

Which of the following association is INCORRECT?

The early prosperity of the Caribbean region was largely based on:

The former British colony in Middle America:

Which of the following is TRUE about Central America?

Central America is considered important to the U.S. mainly because of:

The island of Hispaniola is divided between:

The two countries with a serious land erosion problem:

Which of the following is the largest city in Middle America?

Which of the following associations is CORRECT?

Which of the following is not one of the specific steps in the scientific method?

In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is more likely to vary?

Popular music is written?

Folk songs are distinguished from popular songs because they?

An example of a folk custom used to diffuse information about agriculture is?

Popular music in the United States originated from?

Which of these sports is the most global in its extent?

Lacrosse was adopted by European immigrants?

The spatial distribution of soccer during the twentieth century is an example of?

The current distribution of soccer demonstrates that?

U.S. folk housing styles demonstrate a distribution best explained by?

Which of the following is an important source area for U.S. folk house types?

The most important house style in the United States since the 1960s is known as?

Today, house types in the United States are distinguished by all but which of the following?

Some taboos against eating pork may be partly explained because?

The unique combination of soil, climate, and other physical features determines?

A taboo against pork is a characteristic of?

A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom is a?

In cultures with strong folk clothing preferences, young adults are?

The diffusion of jeans is a good example primarily of the?

Rapid diffusion of popular culture?

The fastest diffusing form of widespread popular media has been?

Diffusion of Internet service is following the earlier pattern of television, excep?

Rapid increases in television ownership have been observed most recently in?

Moving from place to place, one is likely to observe folk art?

The distribution of the subjects of art in the Himalayas shows how folk cultures?

Golf serves as a good example of?

Collections of customs can be used to define a material culture.

Popular culture is more likely to be found in MDCs.

Culture refers to a habit that is widely adopted by a group of people.

Folk culture is more likely than popular culture to vary from time to time at a given place

Access to the Internet may be limited in some countries for all but which of the following types of content?

Which statement best captures the conflicts between folk and popular culture?

A major factor in the diffusion of British football was the presence of British citizens in other countries

Culture can be defined as a repetitive act that a group performs until it becomes a characteristic of a group

The origin of popular music is a good example of how folk culture originates

Although folk cultures have the same process of origin as popular culture, they have a more limited process of diffusion

Organized spectator sports represent folk cultures since they commonly originate from anonymous hearths.

Regional housing styles in the U.S. are becoming more distinct than before.

The ability to produce wine depends a lot on climate.

Popular clothing styles sometimes create controversy in places where folk clothing preferences dominate.

The highest concentration of golf courses within the United States is in the Sunbelt.

Leaders of many developing countries fear that the spread of popular culture will destroy traditional values.

Adoption of Western popular culture seldom results in the elimination of traditional folk culture.

Hotels, fast-food restaurants, and other franchises encourage a uniform appearance on the landscape to promote product recognition.

In general, folk culture is more likely to cause greater uniformity on the landscape than popular culture.

The Indus and Ganges river plains hold a major part of what world population cluster?

One important feature of the world's population with the most significant future implications is that?

Geographers define overpopulation as?

Human beings avoid all but which of these regions?

The world's most populous country is?

Which of the following is not one of the world's largest population concentrations?

The most populous country in the Southeast Asia region is?

A country with a high physiological density has?

Physiological density is the number of?

The most common measure of density, the number of people per area of land, is known as ________ density.

Land suited for agriculture is called?

A country with a large amount of arable land and a small number of farmers will have a?

If the physiological density is much larger than the arithmetic density, then a country has?

Wealthier countries have lower values than poorer countries for all but which demographic measure?

The ________ rate in more developed countries is higher on average than in less developed countries.

Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15, while Country Y has a crude birth rate of 20 and a crude death rate of 9. Which country has a higher natural increase rate?

To calculate a country's dependency ratio, one needs to know the country's population and?

The number of people who are too young or too old to work in a society compared to the number of working age people is the?

Arranging a country's population along a bar graph representing ages and genders creates a population ?

For every 1,000 babies born in India in 2011, an estimated 50 of them will have died before reaching their first birthday. The rate of 50 deaths per 1,000 births is known as the?

The average number of births women bear in their lifetimes is?

The highest natural increase rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition is characterized by a high ________ rate.

The lowest crude birth rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

The highest crude death rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

Which stage of the demographic transition cannot be found anywhere in the world today?

Which stage of the demographic transition are the world's richest countries in?

Stages 1 and 4 of the Demographic Transition are similar in that?

A key obstacle to declining birth rates is?

One approach to decreasing birth rates is to increase the education of?

The principal reason for declining natural increase rates in less developed countries today is?

The future may hold a new stage of the demographic transition marked by?

As a country moves through the demographic transition, we can expect its elderly support ratio to ?

Japan is dealing with economic concerns about an aging population by?

The One Child Policy was effective at reducing the natural increase rate in?

Thomas Malthus concluded that?

In comparing Malthus's theory to actual world food production and population growth during the past half-century, the principal difference is that?

A country goes through?

Which stage of the epidemiological transition is known as the stage of "pestilence and famine"?

Dr. John Snow found that cholera cases in London were?

The epidemiological transition focuses on distinctive ________ at different stages of the demographic transition.

The most lethal epidemic in recent years has been?

Infectious diseases develop resistance to ________ when used improperly.

Which of the following is not a reason for the reemergence of infectious diseases?

More people are alive now than at any time in the past.

Most population growth is presently concentrated in more developed countries.

Population concentrations are generally in low-lying areas with fertile soil.

The physiological density of Egypt is 2,580 persons per square kilometer, while the arithmetic density is 75. This means that most of the country's land is unsuitable for intensive agriculture.

A country of 30,000,000 people has a crude birth rate of 10. This means that in one year 3,000,000 babies were born.

The highest crude birth rates are found in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Developing countries must face increasing proportions of older people in their populations.

The demographic transition is a process that can move forward or backward.

Increasing the education of women is generally associated with declining birth rates.

If there were a fifth stage of the demographic transition, Japan would qualify for it.

According to Malthus, population increases geometrically, while food supply increases arithmetically.

The epidemiological transition occurs independently of the demographic transition.

The AIDS epidemic has been the most lethal of recent epidemics.

Which of the following is not a component part of natural capital?

Processes that bring about changes in economic prosperity and the quality of life are known as:

Which of the following is not a factor that has encouraged globalization?

All of the following are basic dimensions of population geography except:

Until very recently, agriculture employed the highest percentage of people :

The term normative refers to :

“The Tragedy of the Commons” is the most famous essay written on the subject of :

The process through which multinational corporations transfer money from their home countries to foreign or host countries to finance their overseas business activities is known as :

When the total fertility rate (TFR) is ______, a population is said to be at the replacement level.

The oldest method of obtaining food was through :

favors economic and social gains achieved in ways that do not compromise natural resources or the state of environment for future generations.

___________ is the most abundant and the most geographically widespread of the fossil fuels.

What concept is widely understood to bring Americanization?

Out of concern that explosive population growth would undermine the country's development, the government in this country began to promote smaller families in the 1980s.

The roots of the second agricultural revolution can be traced to new agricultural practices in :

The total monetary value of goods and services produced in a year by a country whether those operations are located within the country or abroad is known as :

Large hydropower facilities produce about _______ of the world's electricity.

The standard sea-level atmospheric pressure is:

Which of the following instruments is used to measure air pressure?

Atmospheric pressures at a location vary from day to day:

Where are you likely to measure the highest atmospheric pressure?

Air tends to move from _____________ to _____________.

Horizontal air movements are called:

The distribution of air pressure is often shown on maps by:

The closer together isobars are the steeper the pressure gradient that exists and the resulting wind will be:

Pressure gradients develop because of:

Daytime sea breeze conditions are typically associated with:

The strength of the Coriolis effect:

Which of the following is not a factor that affects surface winds speed and direction?

In a cyclone:

In an anticyclone, a ________ pressure cell, air ___________.

Fair weather is usually associated with:

The ITCZ is an area of convergence of surface winds located at the approximate latitude of:

The equatorial trough is a zone of surface low pressure created by:

The most dependable of all winds are:

The Asiatic monsoon circulation is not associated with:

Which of the following is not a local wind?

Geostrophic wind is the result of a balance between:

Winds aloft:

Jet streams are:

Which of the following is not a cold water ocean current experiencing upwelling?

The thermohaline circulation depends on the _____________ and _____________ of North Atlantic ocean waters.

Atmospheric pressure exists because of the mass of air and the gravity of the Earth.

Air pressure decreases more rapidly at lower elevations than it does at higher elevations.

The energy that powers the Hadley cells is heat from the Sun.

Antarctica is characterized by a permanent high-pressure system, which is associated with its extremely cold temperatures.

Drainage winds are present where winds drain off low-altitude flat plains out to the ocean.

Rossby waves occur in contact zones between warm and cold water currents.

Wave action is responsible for mixing warm water to fairly deep levels in the oceans

Ocean surface currents are produced by the global wind circulation.

An ocean current is any persistent, dominantly vertical flow of ocean water.

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation may be caused by tidal forces linked to the phases of the Moon.