At the close of the Civil War, most African Americans were concentrated in the rural South.
Most remained working as sharecroppers during the late-nineteenth century but with
technological advances in farming sharecroppers were pushed off farms and being pulled to the
prospect of jobs in the booming industrial cities of the North. There were two main waves of
migration of Southern African Americans to the North before both World Wars (that stimulated
the expansion of factory jobs.) As a result of this interregional migration many African
Americans live in cities throughout the Northeast, Midwest, and West as well.