Bandung Conference (Indonesia): Also talking about the postwar world.
- April 18 - 24, 1955
- Political community that goes beyond the nation-state. (Looking at movements).
- Colombo powers (Met in Colombo): Indonesia, Burma/Myanmar, Ceylon/Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan protesting against the current world order
- Greater audience from many countries (for example India, Egypt and a lot of other new nations, Japan, China)
- New connections to these nations, solidarity and shared purposes against legacies of western domination.
- Billion people being represented
Why in Bandung
- Indonesian president studied in Bandung
- Big city in Indonesia
- Assertion of greater economic cooperation and cultural exchange.
- Recognition for human rights and self-determination
- Condemnation of imperialism
- Need to pursue policies promoting world peace
- ‘Bandung spirit': policical possibilities through Third World solidarity
- Suggestion of non-alignment (No siding with SU or US) (Non-Alignmentmovement, NAM, Belgrade 1961).
- Turning point
When was decolonization - late 1950' s early I960' s.
- Different timescales
- Legacies of interwar period
- The leaders of these movements were inspired by a lot of different impulses: nationalism, communism, ‘third way'
- Impact of Second World War
- 1945 Fifth Pan-African Congress
- ‘mass movement;
- Non-violence (inspired by Gandhi)
- students and workers are getting involved.
Case study 1: Kenya
A lot of British white southerners. Everything dominated by minority of white populations
Mau Mau: organisation of landless Kikuyu, all the people who have lost their house and everything as a result of this white dominance. They organised attacks on settlers and other Kiyuku. Shock of the way that settlers were murdered. British arrest important leader of Mau Mau Even more angry. The people who were killing were the people who were working in their own homes (have I employed Mau Mau).
They explained this by saying that these people were ‘possessed'by Maumau.
‘possessed'vs. Legitimate grievances. Kikuyu was strongly surveilled by British 12.000 Mau Mau adherents killed (around 80.000 people held in detention).
- Campaign ended with a series of reforms:
- 1963: Kenyan independence (republic 1964)
- Labelled ‘emergency'(not colonial war, because there was a war human rigths code and with labelling it a rebellion or colonial war the British had to handle by these rules)
Case study 2: Algeria
- A lot of colons: people who were French and lived in Algeria Lack of representation of Algerians in the French government.
- (May 1945: French was celebration liberation from germans and there was an muslim uprising in Setif
- French bemoeien zich met Vietnam)
(rest in de pp)
- Born in Martinique, another colony of France
- Free French (de Gaulle)
- Student of Aime Cesaire
- FLN member
- Violence as a kind of therapy to turn sense of inferiority into self-empowerment. Former dominated people need to get into the sense of autonomy and control over their futures. (Possible only through violence)
- The only way to handle colonial violence is with more violence.
- French counterinsurgency
- August 1955, Phillipeville.
- Increase in military manpower
- State of emergency
- Population resettlements
- Collective reprisals
- Spreads to mainland France (Algerian attacks)
- International criticism
- Called ‘Police operations'
- Shift in policy
- 1962: Algerian independence
- ‘Wretched of the Earth'= Bible of decolonization
- Malcolm X
- Return of migrants of the former settlers who come back to France.
Case study 3: Indonesia
- Dutch colony
- During the Second World War was a conflict which increased the demands . Wilhelmina gave in 1942 a speech were she promised self-determination for the indonesian people. This was maybe more propaganda for the US than a promise for independence.
- 17 August 1945: Sukarno and Mohommad Hatta proclaim Republic Dutch authority was weak in this moment so there was a change for independence.
- bersiap: ‘get ready'.
- 1946: Raymond Westerling, South Sulawesi.
- Raids villages
-Rounds up men
- immediate execution
- Further military interventions
- Indonesian independence 1949
- Memory in Indonesia
- Memory in the Netherlands
- Little recognition of Indisch and Moluccan KNIL
- Subsumed by memory of Second World War
- 1969 Excessennota: renewed investigation, old language of excesses. (Not an investigation in colonial war)
- National identities, new leadership
- Guerilla warfare
(heel stuk gemist maar in pp)
There are two models of development:
- US/Western allies: urbanbased growth, import advanced consumer products, capitalist market
- Soviet Union: Policically induced growth, centralized plans, mass mobilization, heavy industry, infrastructure, collectivization of agriculture.
Neo-colonialism, does he have a point?
- Continued links: Commonwealth (GB)
- Military aid
- Economic aid
- In return for allegiance
- Non-Aligned Movement
- Genuine interest and sense of solidarity
- Own versions of socialism
- Ability of post-independence politicians to use system to their own advantage.
From diplomacy to interventions
Arena's: Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, Africa
Case study: Angola
- Portugese colony
- 1960s anti-colonial liberation movements (combined with ideology from the cold war)
- FNLA: Largest and stronges native african movement, is anti-communist and antiwestern at the same time. Lead by etnic group Bakongo
- MPLA: Based of Europeans and mixed raced ethnicities, very strongly lead by marxist ideology and strong hope for social revolution. Hoping to get help from communists all over the world.
- UNITA : Is formed to the lack of military interaction from the first two organisations. They get help from China. Lead by etnic group Ovimbindu.
1974/5: coup in Portugal
1975: foreign intervention in full swing (FNLA and UNITA supported by US, MPLS SU) 1976: MPLA supported by Cuba, South-African ANC, SWAPO. Looks like the MPLA has the most influence and the Soviets has ‘won'.