Who were the Mongols?
- Forest and prairie pastoralist living on the Eurasian steppes
- Had a force that resembled a permanent standing army (horses skills, bows), great military skills.
- Kinship networks and social roles confederation of tribes
- began expansion in 1206
- leader: Chinggis Khan
- Moved southward and westward
- Violence, deliberate use of violence, skilled implementation of violence
- Selective implementation: They incorperated conquered people into their empire, and there was a cultural exchange.
- Craftsman were needed and saved.
1280: Mongels established Yuan dynasty. 13th century: shift to governance expanse of east Eurasia , all under the rule of one family. 1250 - 1350: Pax Mongolica (Mongol peace).
Impact of the Mongols
- Unification of Eurasia under a single family
- Transferred technologies through trade
- Rich material cultural legacy - craftsman
- Time of cultural reinvigoration (for those who cooperated) e.g. in China
- Model of imperial rule:
- Protection of religious institutions
- recognising difference
- Cultivation of personalized loyalty to the khan.