Resistance to slavery:
- Armed resistance: Stone Rebellion, South Carolina 1739
- Subterfuge, foot dragging
- Running away people who ran away became part of Maroon communities (from 17th century) (founded their own communities). The word maroon comes from the spanings word cimarrones: mountains, so the people who fled to the mountains. Mountains have places where you can hide away. Maroon communities mostly in Central and South America. They had a very strong leadership structure, were very well organized. They engage in open conflict e.g. Maroon Wars (1730 - 1740) Former slaves can count on the maroon communities to support them. strong legacy of Maroons in Jamaican culture, means that their roots were part of a very strong resistance movement against slavery, very important in the Jamaican culture.
William Safran (1991) definintion: Diasporas are expatriate minority communities that 1. Are disperesed from a ‘centre' to at least two ‘perpiheral places'
- Maintain a longing to their original homeland
- Believe they are not and cannot be accepted fully by their new homeland
- See ancestral home as place of eventual return
- Are committed to maintenance to homeland
- Group consciousness/solidarity defined by continued relationship with homeland.
Stuart hall definition:
the diaspora experience is defined not my essence and purity, but by the recognition of a necessary heterogeneity and diversity.
The Black Atlantic: Black identity is something that exist through exchange, through conversations across the Atlantic. (for examples black intellectuals.) Double consciousness (W.E.B. du Bois): There is a dissonance between your real identity and the way your seen.
The Merchant Navy:
- Conditions in the merchant navy
- Impressed labour
- Ship = factory at sea
- Resistance - two waves (pirates)
Pirates are exceptional in volume and value, they engage in the carribean and the Indian ocean. A pirate ship conditions were a little better than on Merchant ships, there was an order on board on a pirate ship and authority. The captain was elected and there was also a council that concludes every man on the ship, this council had the most power. - Welfare system: People on the ship saved up to help the people of the group who were injured. - No fighting allowed on board, otherwise you were left on the first land they could find. - Pirates are connected by a common sense of revenge on the merchant navy that they left. - Symbols and flags (the jolly roger). - Pirates operated in networks this made pirates a force hard to deal with.
Differences Maroons and Pirates:
- Where: plantation vs. ship
- Who: gender, pirates all male, maroons male and female
- Maroons - part of African diaspora, pirates are not part of a diaspora.
- Maroons: Nature of non-freedom, pirates more freedom
- Violent world as starting point
- slavery/maritime trade: systems that paved way for industrial capitalism
- ‘outlaws' from a dispossessed underclass
- agency: ability of these people to control their own futures is for both very important.