Medieval India: India was already trading with south-east Asia, but this trading is kind of short distance. These trade router are taken over by the Muslim traders in the 13th century. Internal trade in peninsula better organised.

Several dozen kingdoms, ‘imperial states'

The Mughal Empire: Expansion

Lead by Babur (1483- 1530): descendent from two great powers: Gengiz Kahn and ...

  • Turkish language, did not speak the language of the subcontinent
  • military resources: horsemanship, new battle tactics (artillery, gun powder)
  • tents
  • lineage

Akbar (Baburs grandson) (1542 - 1605) Large part of india ruled by single powerful person, cohersion and violence big part of that.

  • No permanent capital
  • centralisation through language: Persian languages
  • New nobility: not just the people who are related to the Mughals, but incorporation of people from Persia and India. Mix of different traditions acceptance of different traditions.
  • Abolished poll tax on Hindu dhimmis = subjects who still practiced own not punishing the populations anymore for not being muslim. He creates in his personal life also connections with different groups and religions. Married a Hindu and a Christian wife.
  • Theological debates.
  • ‘Divine Faith': religion created by Akbar.
  • Akbar Nama= ‘Book of Akbar, written by Abu Fazl. Akbar brougth artists over from Persia and had them lead a formal Persian studio.

Mugal Commerce:

  • Land rent.
  • 1560s: weakened power of zamindars. Zemindars = decentralised tribute collectors.
  • Money rather than goods
  • Textile industry
  • 16th century trade with Portuguese, also British and Dutch.
  • Silver specie (coins) looks a bit like a modern economy

Mughal Architecture: Brought architects from central Asia and India, combination.

  • Shah Jahan (1592 - 1666): grandson of Akbar. Had a team of architectures under his rule, build the Taj Mahal for his wife. : Persian and Islamic design + Indian materials and motifs.
  • Delhi//Shajahanabad
  • Jama Masjid, mosque

visual and politcal centralisation

Shah Jahan dies: fighting Aurangzeb (1618 - 1707), decline of Mughal rule.

Ascent of East India Companies: Commerce and conquest

- Portugal first.

  • British East India Company.
  • Control through commerce followed by military interventions
  • 1757: Bengal
  • Puppet regimes - indirect rule
  • Tax collection
  • Annexation
  • 1784: unprecedented rights

Knowledge and orientalism:

  • Orientalism: introduced by Edward Said: The orient is reduced to certain Essentializations of ‘The Orient', the polarisation of the West. Rational vs. irrational

Changes in trade

  • India had been exporter of finished textiles
  • 1820-1840: change
  • India becomes exporter of raw cotton
  • Indian cloth porduction de-industrialized
  • English cotton mills
  • Manufactured goods to India
  • Omdoa becomes exporter of gold/silver ‘drain of wealth'.

Sepoy Uprising/Rebellion/Mutiny/First War of independence

  • EIC increalingly autocratic
  • 1806 Muslim sepoys revolt
  • 1824 Bengal soldiers refuse service
  • 1756: EIC treaty with Kingdom of Awadh
  • 1856: EIC violates treaty, annexes Awadh
  • Rumours - cartridges greased with animal fat
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