Early on the Indian ocean is not dominated by one leader or country but is based on free trade.
Dhows: Arabian boats
- Wooden vessels
- Lateen sail
- Crews 12-30 men
- ‘Sewn boats'
- Monsoon winds: South in winter, North in summer. Had to be taken into account when trading by ship.
Called Dhows cultures, because this trade created, through cultural exchanges, cultures on the coast areas.