Antonian movement: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita created a new religion she said that Jesus was born in Congo, she was burnt as a witch. Toni Malau: The antony of good fortune was a figure of this new movement. Many followers of Dono Beatriz were made into slaves and gained huge support out of this religion.

- If two cultures meet there is a potential to create a new culture, instead that one culture always is dominant.

- shows the interconnectivity of the atlantic world

      - 16
      century: Motivated Europeans to make new routes to Asia. First: The portugese

  • Christopher Columbus - 1492 Hispaniola
  • Vasco da Gama - 1498 circumnavigation of Africa
  • Amerigo Vespucci - 1501-2 ‘new world'voyage, Brazil perhaps Patagonia
  • Ferdinand Magellan - 1519 route from South America to the spice islands (Maluku islands)

Portugese discoveries:

  • from 1300: ports and fortresses along West African coast
  • Sugar and slaves: huge production , Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde archipelagos.
  • Fifteenth-century plantation slavery and economy became the model for the New World in the sixteenth century

Slaver: First Indian slaves, after that African slaves. thousand Europeans migrating to Africa


Different kind of slavery: landgrants (encomiendas) and settlers with right to force Indian labour and slaveholding (encomenderos)


Came to Europe initally from the Arab and Mediterranean world. British wanted Suger production back. Controlling the movement of sugar is key to establishing wider political control in the region.

Sugar became desirable not because it tasted good but it was linked to tea coffee and chocolate -> was a form of richness and upper class.

- Seperation of production and consumption (between the people who produce and who consume)

- Seperations between a worker and his tools

Slave trade:

  • 1525: first transatlantic slave voyage.
  • African slaveholding since the 7th century
  • By 17th and 18th century: Europeans also slave trade triangles of trade:
  1. finished goods/slaves/sugar (Starts in Europe)
  2. (Starts in South-America where rum was produced) rum/slaves/molasses (key ingredient for producing rum)

African slave trade: Slaves assimilated

Atlantic slave trade: More sugar means more slaves, there are only small parts of Africa that remain untouched by slave trade.

The Middle Passage:

  • high mortality rates (argument used by Abolitionists).
  • Disease: poor hygienic conditions.

Drawing of the slaver, original sketch doesn't have people drawn to it, abolitionists did that to make their point.


  • Imbalanced of male - female balance at home, strong adult males were taken away.
  • Colonialization is seen, by many famous economists, as were the industrial revolution begins in Europe
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