CRISIS OF HUMANISM:
Nowadays We talk about crisis of humanity and modernity. Modernity is characterizeded by technological rationality. The creator man dissolves in the communicative society.
Milestones of this crisis:
The crisis of humanism begins in the Renaissance. This crisis has to do with the genesis and development of modernity: and it is defined by man's relationship with God.
The theocentrism is replaced by the anthropocentrism: But God is still there, and the man has it, leaning on its transcendence.
The thought is secularized and God is replaced by the "goddess Reason". Although you don't get to atheism in general. God is still alive in some authors, but he is far away and vaporous.
The Church is attacked because of its obscurantism and dogmatism.
Nietzsche and the Death of God:
It becomes aware of the "atheism" and its consequences (for Nietzshe, it meant at the end of its life the state of madness).
Modern Atheism is the most important fact in the life of the West. It is a theoretical and also practical atheism.
It is necessary to be aware of the magnitude and practical implications of this fact, of the "greatest possible human action", which divides in two The history of Mankind:
The death of God at the hands of man convulsed the world, because God gave the order, the sense and guarantee of truth and good.
The consequence is that now the "God" is the "man": he is the one who gives himself good and evil, creates the value of things.
This "Weight" of being "God" is too heavy, and so men throughout history have not wanted to learn that "God is dead," and instead of becoming God, they have invented new "gods" (like science) that would serve as a guarantee of eternity and universality of L I value you and the TR Uth.
Now man takes this consciousness of the death of God and accepts it, achieving a "nihilism" that makes the creation of New Gods impossible.
The destruction of the old values.
New valuation of life.
The birth of "Superman": Sense of the world.
The loss of the influx of religion and its ruin did not come so much from the criticisms of the theoretical reason, when the emergence of a new man illuminated by the industrial society: the Scientific-Technical man.
This man is dominated by a practical and utilitarian spirit, and thus replaces hope in the hereafter by the joys of this world that the new powers place at their fingertips.
The Irreligiosidad of the technical world is not a theoretical atheism, but a practical one. It's not about denying God, but about "forgetting" him. The man "replaces the Morning Prayer, by the reading of the newspaper" (Heguel).
Man, conscious of his power, trusts in himself to achieve well-being and bliss in a world that ceases to be a valley of tears, to be an earthly paradise.
Born with Hegel:
That makes a critique of religion.
It vindicates The realization of man in the world and not in the far and hazy beyond.
Follow with Feuerbach:
Philosophy must cease to be theology, to become anthropology: Unbelief has replaced faith, reason to the Bible, politics to religion and church, Earth has replaced heaven, work to prayer, material misery to hell, man to Christian.
Ends with Marx:
The critique of every religion is the premise of all criticism.
Human Emancipation is only possible when man is declared "as the Supreme Essence of Man": When the Divinity is replaced as the center of the world and the man is placed.
Heguel and Feuerbach, have only theorized. Philosophy must go into action: to reach the real man, the world of the State and society. Because This real world produces "alienation."
The fight against religion has to become a struggle against this world "that has in religion its spiritual scent." (Religion is the opium of the people).
The existence of religion is the recognition of human misery and an invitation to its suppression, not through the resource "to Heaven" (to the Hereafter), which accepts this misery; But by eliminating that state of things that need illusions.
That is why the political and social revolution is necessary: "philosophers have limited themselves to interpret the world in different ways, what it is all about is transforming it", achieving the emancipation of man.
The collapse of the human goddess:
The man forgot the limits of his power and that industrial development is not enough by itself. All this was reflected in reality. The consequences were:
That Human well-being has only been biased in "rich" countries.
The two World Wars.
The birth of a new vision "pessimistic" about man: Existentialism.
Existentialist Humanism (Martin Heidegger):
It recognizes the failure of the great vital project that the men had proposed.
The theme of "being": why there is being rather than nothing. Man is "Being-for- death" (as the day-to-day on the battle front; as our day, when we do not know if in a second we will be grass of the atom bomb): This provokes a "stress", because "we have nowhere to hold to be safe."
Philosophy is a helpless reflection in the face of "nothingness."
Post-World War Humanism:
Man never loses hope. To forget this anguish, it was launched into an amazing scientific-technical development, to achieve prosperity and supreme happiness: It is the "technological" culture, which reaches the ideal that modern man had always proposed: real freedom. This new culture is based on:
The utility as a criterion of validity.
The mastery of technique and calculus in ordinary life.
But the problems worsened, on the contrary:
Degradation of the environment.
The possibility of nuclear extermination.
Today we feel the need to overcome "modernism", living the real experience of the "End of History" (possibility of the atomic catastrophe).
Currents critical with the post-modernity:
The vision of G. Vattimo in his work "The End of Modernity", on The new reality that has been born:
Its criticism is routed to loas failures and excessive pretensions of the scientific- technical knowledge.
Man lives without any "foundation" in his life: because he vanishes and perishes, because it is something that is born and dies..
It is a man without metaphysical dimension in its existence: it is an "E-Vento" (released to the existence): a naked present.
What role does philosophy play in this new world? Only to detect mistakes, to look at the falsehood of religion, of morality, of art,..................................... Wandering by the thought, and
Another Current critical of Modernity: "Methodological anarchism":
Its critique focuses on the root of scientific-technical knowledge: the method.
There is No single scientific method, or rules that are fundamental in any research and that ensures that it is "scientific" and therefore worthy of credit. Consequently, on science "everything Goes" (absolute relativism).
The reason "is not worth", or is a "passing whim" (P. Feyerrabend)
The Current challenge of Philosophy:
In the face of the general trend of today's philosophy, which aims to fall into contemplative mysticism: an inner empiricism, for which it would be necessary to take LSD, to control respiration (pranayama), Zen meditation............................................................................................ , in order to analyse
the's conscience,... Because the scientific-technical development has become a means of slavery and has not been valid for the reform of the present society, it is necessary to recreate an authentically human thought, that solves the big problems that has outstanding the humanity today.
One must unite reason and decision: that science and technique are emancipatory, for which it is necessary "discussion and consensus" (J. Have).
"The irrationality of the Dominion, which has become a collective danger in which life is going, could only be tame through a political formation linked to a general discussion and free of dominion."
Philosophy must respond to the new demands of technocratic consciousness, and prevent the bankruptcy of religious consciousness, or general loss of hope for salvation, degenerate into a flight into new subcultural substitute religions cultivated in sects.Today's philosophy knows that reason is not our "God", but it is the only table of "salvation," that does not accept defeat in advance, but maintains faith and hope in the future of humanity.