The inner change of man:

Man is a being whose primary and decisive reality is to deal with his future. And The future of man is that war is totally outlawed or there will be no future for man.

The necessary peace cannot be the result of "a truce", but must be a "Perpetua peace" (Kant), and it is not enough to change society, but it is necessary to transform man inside.

What The new man consists of:

Learning to think and be otherwise.

To remove from his heart the poisons that justifyed the recourse to war and violence as a form of salvation.

"War, though decreed by governments, is the result of an accumulation of bad passions in many separate individuals. To put an end to war, we should not only pressure governments, but we must also remove from our hearts the poisons that make war seem reasonable: pride, greed, envy and contemplate. "(B. Russell).

Man invents and uses techniques and builds social and political organizations. Any Social change implies a change of the man (Ortega and G.)

But even though social and political change changes the concrete man.

However, the radical transformation that is necessary in man is not possible with the single reform of the social and political framework, because the man who is not at peace with himself, will hardly be with the world.

Possibility of man's inner change:


The human condition is always the same: its conduct obeys inevitable passions: vengeful, petty, selfish, ambitious, fearless, fickle... Man cannot change.

The ruler must not be true to his word: for if all were good, this rule would be wrong; But since they are "bad" they will not keep their word, nor the ruler theirs.

Human wickedness does not come from an "original sin", but from the same human nature: from its tendencies and propels.

Freud (Psychoanalytic School):

Human instincts come from the tendencies to:

Unite and save.

Kill and Destroy.

The only way to control them is to domesticandolos through a process of cultural evolution:

Strengthening the intellect: dominating instincts.

Internalize the aggressive tendencies.

There is always the possibility that the psychic attitudes imposed by the culture are violently denied: that is the war. In the face of this danger, you should:

Promote cultural evolution, even if this leads to the repression of vital (sexual) instincts.

The vision of human nature is pessimistic, and its final destiny also:

The source of inspiration is not in ethical-religious beliefs.

But in the human unconscious, and in the history of mankind.

Positive conception of Human Nature (Humanists):

Man is not corrupted (neither by sin, nor by nature): He can without freely, and corrupt himself if he wills.

Human nature is the fruit of man's decision: a sculptor of himself.

Man has no feelings of guilt, of fear: because they slow down and disturb the positive tendencies of man to life.

Free from sin, man is free to create, and is delivered to the technique with enthusiasm.

Concepcion de Ortega y Gasset:

For him there is no human nature as something immutable and finished. Man is history.

Nothing is invariably in man: That's why it's history, the opposite of substance.

The man is free, because he has nothing given, and everything has to go looking for him.

Beltran Russell Posture:

Reality does not present man as a "shallow table" in which nothing is written, and can write anything.

Man comes from nature (from the jungle), and throughout his cultural history, have been shaping a series of elements that give a certain form: man is half animal and half man.

Man belongs to the realm of need, but also human nature is historically determined and evolves in history.

The beast that is man can be domesticated, making culture transform it and make it free. It is necessary and possible to change the irrationality of human nature by making it prevail not aggressive and destructive instincts, but solidarity instincts and cooperation among men.

Living in happiness, radiant happiness. This is the only way that personal, social, national, and international problems are fade, as the mist of the mountain dissolves at the top, the sun appears and the path clearly showing. It's necessary to change the heart.

The New man must be:

Able to feel humanity as their own. It is true that the relationship between man and nature has been transformed, moving from the realm of necessity to freedom. But This has not happened in the man-man relationship.

Free cooperator with other men: solidarity, no hatred, no cruelty. Without this, technique and science lead us to catastrophe.

A Man of "family": educated in solidarity.

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