Philosophy. Lectures, control works for students


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What are the etymological, the first theoretical and first practical meanings of the term ‘philosophy'?

What arguments are used by Rationalism to establish the subject and predicate terms of mathematical propositions possess different meanings (i.e., that these propositions are synthetic), and that the truth (or falsity) of these propositions is known a priori?

Empiricist A (John Stuart Mill) claims that “inconceivability is not a criterion for logical impossibility.” How does he employ this claim against the Rationalist's position?

Clearly explain the ‘falsifiability test' and the ‘relational theory of identity.' How does Empiricism B (Logical Positivism) employ each of these theories in effort to establish its position?

Empiricism accepts the ‘referential theory of meaning.' What does this theory teach? What are the ideological consequences which follow from this theory?

Precisely state the ‘Problem of Induction'. What is David Hume's position in regard to this issue? How does he defend this position, i.e., what analysis does he offer as argumentative proof of the correctness of his position?

Is there some feature of science that distinguishes it from nonscience; or meaningful from meaningless discourse?

What is the Verifiability Criterion of Meaning? What does it imply as to which beliefs are “cognitively meaningful”?

What is it for an assertion to be verifiable, in practice and in principle, directly and indirectly?

What does Popper mean by a theory being falsifiable? Why does he think falsifiability distinguishes science form non science? Why does he think scientific theories cannot be confirmed, but only falsified?

What are the various ways Positivists formulated the VCM? Be able to state objections to the VCM. Which features formed the Positivits' Standard View of scientific theories? What problems did these encounter?

What does it mean for one theory to reduce another theory?

How is reduction related to deductive reasoning?

What is the distinction between homogeneous and inhomogeneous reduction? Does Nagel succeed in showing that theoretical reductions are logically valid and that hey can account for scientific progress?

How does the model reconstruct scientific explanations? What is the role of laws of nature in scientific explanations? Does it account for all cases of scientific explanations? Consider objections to this model, some maintaining that is too broad, others that it is too narrow, and come to a reasoned conclusion about the adequacy of this model.

Human behaviour cannot be explained scientifically.

The problem of monetary incentives crowding out intrinsic motivation is that .

Which of the following statements refers to a natural rights justification of intellectual property rights?

Which of the following ways of influencing individuals is a Nudge?

Which of the following statements does%not refer to a moral limit of the Coase theorem?

Why does the problem of external validity arise in laboratory experiments?

What is the main idea behind objective list theories of well-being?

One problem of the laundered preference theory of well-being is.

Which of the following statements best summarises the project of the 'Nash Equilibrium refinement programme' in game theory?

William Wimsatt (2007) proposes a classification of several kinds of idealizations one might find in science. One such kind is that models may be incomplete. What does Wimsatt mean by that?

Contemporary econometricians can be roughly divided into two camps: the 'Practical Men' on the one side and the 'Theorists' on the other. Which of the following statements best describes the 'Theorists' view?

Complete the following statement as appropriate. “In Galilean thought experiments, disturbing factors are..

The Allais' Paradox...

According to Julian Reiss, the use of economic models for explanatory purposes generates a paradox. Which of the following statements is not part of the explanation paradox?

Which of the following is not an underlying idea of the 'Save more tomorrow' Nudge?

Why is correlation not causation?

What is 'paternalistic' and what is 'libertarian' about Libertarian Paternalism?

Which statement best defines Nash Equilibrium?

Which statement is correct?

Utilitarianism is compatible with a violation of human freedom, only if a violation of human freedom...

What are the three components of the DN-Model of explanation?