Formation personality in sociology is considered in the context of two interrelated processes - identification and socialization.
Socialization is the process by which the individual assimilates norms and rules of behavior accepted in society. This is a two-sided process that includes, on the one hand, the assimilation of the social experience by the individual with the help of entering the social environment as well as the system of connections and relations, and, on the other hand, is the process of active reproduction of the principles of the system of social ties through active activity. The main stages of socialization: pre-labor (childhood, adolescence), labor (mature age), post-labor (old age).
The components of the process of socialization are: learning (the acquisition of new knowledge), education (the impact of the spiritual sphere of behavior), growing-up and maturation (the processes of mental and physiological development of the body). Conductors of socialization: social institutions, intermediaries, culture.
Institutions, groups and individuals, which have a significant impact on socialization, are called agents of socialization. Each stage of the life path has its agents of socialization.
1. In the infant period, the main agents of socialization are parents or people who are constantly caring and communicating with the child.
2. Between the age of three and eight years the number of socialization agents is growing rapidly. Besides parents, friends, educators, other people surrounding the child also become an agents. In addition, the mass media are included in the process of socialization. A special role among them is played by television. A number of works show that the role of television grows as the child grows, by 8-12 years often replacing the influence of parents and peers. Television contributes to the formation of value orientations, aspirations, role models of behavior.
3. The period from 13 to 19 years is extremely important for the process of socialization. During this period, the attitude towards the opposite sex begins to form, aggressiveness, aspiration to risk, independence and independence grows. Important factors in this period are: changing the role of socialization agents, changing the value orientations, including the existence of parallel value systems, increasing susceptibility to negative assessments of others, the discrepancy between the level of social claims and low social status, the contradiction between strengthening the orientation toward independence and increasing dependence on parents .
There are two types of socialization: primary (parents, relatives, relatives, teachers, friends, peers) and secondary. Primary socialization occurs most intensively in childhood and adolescence. Secondary covers the second half of life. Desocialization is the weaning of old roles, norms, values. Resocialization is learning new roles, norms instead of lost or insufficiently mastered.
Children socialization and adult socialisation have significant differences. Adult socialization is characterized by the fact that this is mainly a change in external behavior (children socialization is the formation of value orientations), adults are able to assess the norms (and children only to assimilate them). Adult socialization is designed to help a person master certain skills. Another point of view on the adult socialization is that adults are gradually abandoning naive children's ideas (for example, the unshakable authority, absolute justice, etc.), from the notions that there is only white and black.
Socialization also contributes to the preservation of society itself, implanting generally accepted ideals, values, patterns of behavior to the new citizens.