Bio-and psychogenic properties have a significant influence on the formation of the personality, as well as factors of the social environment. The dominant influence on the process of personality formation is provided by the group experience and subjective as well as unique personal experience. They are acquired by the individual in the process of socialization.
The term "socialization" is closely related to such concepts as the formation, development, education of the individual.
The formation of personality should be understood as the unity of objective and subjective conditions and subjective factors that purposefully influence the process of human formation and development. Of course, only taking into account the influence of the whole aggregate of social relations in combination with the subjective activity of strata, groups and the individual itself one may talk of the multilateral influence on the individual and, accordingly, shape its development. The development of the personality reflects the consistency and progressiveness of the changes that occur in the mind and behavior of the individual. Education is associated with subjective activity, with the development of a person's certain idea about the world around him. Although upbringing takes into account the influence of the external environment, it basically characterizes the efforts made by social institutions.
There are various approaches to determining the essence of the process of socialization in sociological and philosophical science. For example, L.P. Bueva believes that socialization means the process of the social formation of the human individual, the formation of his social essence. A human being becomes a person, acquires and multiplies a certain set of social qualities and properties through the assimilation of social experience; this process includes him in active social activities, which in itself involves the mastery of a diverse social experience. Socialization is the path of man's mastery of culture. In the process of socialization, the individual acquires his own "I". He becomes a person, bound by a system of assessments, beliefs, habits and behavior.
Socialization is a process that is not limited to the period of the formation of the personality, but lasts all life, covers all spheres of human activity. V.Zh. Kelle notes that the formation of personality includes three interrelated components:
1) socialization is the most general and initial, that is, mastering the language, knowledge, adherence to the values and norms of the culture, the formation of a world outlook, etc., make an individual able to live in a given society, to be a member of it;
2) then, an individualization of a person occurs, that is, the development of qualities that distinguish this individuality from others, and the degree of individualization can be very different and largely depends on the nature of socialization: either it is limited to subordinating the individual to certain standards, or gives freedom to the development of individuality;
3) the personalization is a synthesizing component of the whole process, that is, the formation of personality.
The process of socialization involves a social adaptation (the process of adaptation to certain socioeconomic conditions), internalization (assimilation) of the individual norms and values adopted in his group.
A number of Western researchers distinguish the characteristics of different periods of socialization. Among them:
1. The process of socialization in childhood. There are two types of children socialization: repressive and participative. At this stage, there are such psychological mechanisms as imitation, identification, a sense of shame and guilt (Z. Freud).
2. The process of socialization after childhood is youthful, when young people see the contradictions between their values and the values of adults. The relationship between peers is brought on front at this time.
3. The process of adult socialization differs from the socialization of children in several ways: the socialization of adults rather changes external behavior, while the socialization of children forms value orientations.
Adults are able to evaluate norms, and children can only absorb them. Socialization of adults is designed to help people acquire certain skills, whereas socialization in childhood is more concerned with motivation.
In domestic studies, the following stages of socialization are distinguished: the pre-labor stage, the labor stage and the post-labor stage.
Personal qualities, formed earlier, do not remain unchanged. Resocialization means mastering new values and roles to replace previously inadequately mastered or inappropriate new situations.
In the process of socialization, the environment affects the development of the personality both purposely and unintentionally. Problems of the personality formation in the process of socialization are given a significant place in the studies of Ch.X. Cooley (theory of the "mirror I"), JG Mead (the concept of the "generalized other"), A. Haller (the theory of "significant other"), Freud (psychoanalysis), J. Piaget (theory of cognitive development), E. Erickson, who described the state of "I am - me" where meaningful "other" is very important for the development of personal role behavior.
Agents (conductors) of socialization are social institutions and people, who individually and in groups, promote socialization.
Certain groups of agents come into effect at each stage of socialization. Thus, there are institutions and groups that promote the initial development of natural and social properties (family, peers), educational institutions, institutions of labor, political, cultural, cognitive activity.
It should be noted that socialization can be unsuccessful or not happen at all.
Thus, socialization is the process of the individual's entry into social life, which plays an important role both in the life of the individual and society. It ensures the self-renewal of public life. In whatever sphere the person acts, the spiritual moment always and in all ways accompanies its activity. A person does not passively reproduce what society dictates to him. He has the opportunity to show his creative power and influence the surrounding phenomena and processes. Free time has particular importance for the socialization of the individual, the enrichment of his spiritual world. According to Marx's observation, free time serves as a yardstick of the true wealth of man. The spiritual component, therefore, is decisive in the socialization of the individual.