• Frieze of the Black Horses - Lascaux II - France
  • Piss Christ - Andre Serrano - 1987
  • Still Life: Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers - Van Gogh - 1888
  • The Mona Lisa - Da Vinci - 1503-1505
  • Migrant Mother - Dorothea Lange - 1936
  • Square Dancing - Laird Goulet - around 2010

What is Art?:

  • Artifacts of human creation
  • Created through exceptional skill
  • Intended to affect the senses
  • Shares stylistic conventions with similar works
  • Art is guided by aesthetics:

o Philosophies about what ahs beauty and value in art

  • Cultural assumptions about appropriate:

o Media for making art

o Styles of painting, sculpting, oral traditions

o Dance movements

Cultural Aesthetics:

  • Attitudes toward art and artists vary cross-culturally
  • Aesthetic paradigms - art may be:

o Mimetic

o Representational

o Instrumental

o Emotionalist

o Formalist

Mimetic Art:

  • The mimetic paradigm is concerned with the art work itself
  • It is a reflection of nature
  • The work is a correct representation of reality
  • Ex: “A Young Hare” - Albecht Curer 1502

Representational Art:

  • Art that imitates, idealizes, or symbolizes form and experience
  • Ex: “The Oath of the Horatii” - Jacques-Louis David 1784

Instrumental Art:

  • Art that attempts to have a beneficial effect on society, enriching peoples lives, teaching moral lessons, and providing insights for improving and changing the world
  • Ex: “The Third of May” - Francisco de Goya 1814
  • Ex: Michael Jackson and Bubbles - Jeff Koons 1988
  • Ex: Banksy - Follow you dreams, cancelled

Emotionalist Art:

  • Art that attempts to express the artist's feelings or to release the feelings of the viewer
  • Ex: “Composition VII” - Kandinsky 1913

Formalist Art:

  • Abstract art that focuses on the formal qualities of art - colour, composition, sound, words, or movement
  • Ex: “Composition with Gray and Light Brown” - Piet Mondrian 1918
  • Ex: “Earth and Green” - Mark Rothko 1951

Body Art:

  • Scarification

o Artistic and ritualistic scarring of the face or other parts of the body in particular designs - commonly used to mark transitions to adulthood

  • Tattooing

o Injecting inks or dyes under the skim to produce designs

  • Piercing
  • Clothing
  • Body painting
  • Jewelry

Origins and Functions of Art Objects:

  • Embellished utilitarian objects

o Crafts

  • Artisans: specialists in the production of works and art - crafts perform artisans
  • Gender differences in art production

o Men did wood carving and painting = art

o Women were trained, but their work was never taken seriously - not art

o Women did blankets, baskets, beadwork = craft

o Art will always been more important/greater than craft

  • Ritual/ceremonial art

o Sand paintings

Art vs. Craft:

  • Art requires creativity, takes time and resources, free from financial constraints - does not need to be sold
  • Craft requires skill and a commercial mind, but no creativity
  • Craft is performed by artisans

The Origins of Art:

  • 30,000-50,000 years ago
  • Meanings and purpose unknown

o Cave paintings

o Rock paintings

o Venus figurines

  • Oldest = willendorft venus - stylized image of female body (pregnant) o Squatting goddesses in India
  • Birthing position
  • Women as a vessel of reproduction

The Arts of Sound and Movement:

  • Musical styles
  • Sacred or secular
  • Song
  • Dance
  • Ethnomusicology: the study of music from an anthropological perspective

Oral Literature and Written Texts:

  • Oral literature: stories that people tell about their sacred past, their secular histories, and their personal lives

o Stories we tell ourselves about ourselves

  • Folktales: secular stories that relate events that teach moral lessons or entertain listeners

o Part of socialization and enculturation - everyday childhood

o Ex: Hansel and Gretel - moral: stranger danger, don't be greedy

  • Stylistic features of narratives

o Begin “once upon a time”, “long, long ago”, with a flood

  • Storytelling and performance style
  • Proverbs - traditional advice and admonitions
  • Riddles - impart cultural knowledge and wisdom (help enculturate children)
  • Written texts and visual beauty

Art and Globalization:

  • Global processes

o Effects on indigenous arts

o Reproducing art that is not part of their culture

  • Diffusion of art styles

o Colonialism

o Travel: performers and tourists

o Migration

  • World music

o Removed from lived contexts

■ Ex: listening to afrocuban music in Canada - it changes and does not make sense in this context always

o Blending of styles

Art and Identity:

  • Art objects and styles as carriers of cultural identity
  • Art and ethnicity in multiethnic societies

o Iconic use of dance and music

o Ex: Indian student groups in univ, putting on bollywood dance performances (expressing Indian-ness

  • Control of nation identity in states

o Banning certain arts

o Nature, beauty, children = encouraged

o Anything negative or non-soviet were banned

Art in the Global Economy:

  • Incorporation of indigenous peoples into regional, national, and global networks
  • Influence of market demands on styles and motifs
  • Art for export market may be major sources of income

Art and Tourism:

  • Ecotourism and cultural tourism
  • Traditional meanings and sacred forms transformed as entertainment
Ethnic art
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