Classical management

Scientific management

  • One best way to do a task
  • Selection of best workers
  • Training workers
  • Worker incentive
  • Support workers
  • Stop motion studies

Administrative principles

5 administrative principles by Henri Fayol:

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Commanding
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling


Opposes the traditional European business models at the time which were focused around one person or family.

  • Rational authority - not personal/family/religious
  • Authority based on structure & position
  • Rules, records and decisions were recorded
  • Hierarchy of authority
  • Management separate to ownership
  • Allows the company to continue operation when the business owner passed

Behavioural management approaches

Hawthorne studies - Relay assembly experiment where workers were given improved conditions and then removed.

This found that workers performed best when they felt valued and special personally.

Quantitative management approaches

Applied quantitative techniques such as:

  • Mathematical forecasting
  • Inventory modeling
  • Simulation

Modern Management approaches

Contingency theory - Meaning a mix of both scientific and behavioral techniques.

Managers need to identify key variables in a situation and use these to determine the best approach to use.

Modern management themes:

  • Quality & performance excellence
  • Global awareness
  • Organizational learning
  • Quality leadership
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