In Russia, the peasants had spontaneously redistributed the land among themselves, an the Bolsheviks ratified their actions. In 1949 China, after a long and difficult process, peasants were encouraged to confront and humiliate landlords, which resulted in over one million deaths of landlords. A second and more distinctively socialist stage of rural reform sought to end private property in land by collectivizing agriculture. In China, despite brief resistance from richer peasants, collectivization during the 1950s was generally a peaceful process. In the Soviet Union, peasant resistance to collectivization led to extensive violence in 1928-1933. China pushed the collectivization process further, though, particularly in large “peoples communes” during the Great Leap Forward in the late 1950s.