The revolution in China was a struggle of decades rather than a single year. Unlike Russia, where intellectuals had been discussing socialism for more than 50 years before the revolution, the ideas of Karl Marx were barely known in China. The Chinese communists faced a more formidable political foe than the weak Provisional Government over which the Bolsheviks had triumphed in Russia. The Bolsheviks found their primary audience among workers in Russia's major cities and the Chinese communists looked to the rural peasant villages for support. The Chinese peasants did not rise up spontaneously against their landlords as Russian peasants did. The Bolsheviks gained support by urging Russian withdrawal from WWI, whereas the Chinese communists won support by aggressively pursuing the struggle against Japanese invaders during WWII.