The Industrialization was an epicycle and put an end to specialization - a lounge Duree perspective Machines such as the steam-powered wheel resulted in the mass of production and the division of labour. (Thomas Newcomen's steam- powered wheel allowed for heat energy to be transformed into mechanical energy, but James Watt made the steam-powered wheel more portable). It changed how society lived and worked. For example, prior to the industrial revolution, people would “do the whole job (i.e. making the whole violin), whereas, during the revolution, there was the division of labour (i.e. someone cuts the wood, someone attaches the strings). This then to machine over muscle and mass production. The mass production called for more raw materials. The White Man's Burden was the burden of colonization in order to get these raw materials, hence the invention of the railway, which allowed for faster production and supplies. The mass production also led to the Gilded Age and the advance of technology and business. Many companies were booming. For example, J.D. Rockefeller's (first billionaire) Standard Oil Business.