Opposition to this revived despotism surfaced among both military and civilian elites known as the Young Turks. They largely abandoned any reference to Islam and advocated instead a militantly secular public life. Some among them began to think of the empire as neither a dynastic state nor a Pan-Islamic empire, but rather as a Turkish national state. A military coup in 1908 allowed the Young Turks to exercise real power. They pushed for a radical secularization of schools, courts, and law codes; permitted elections and competing parties; established a single Law of Family Rights for all regardless of religion; and encouraged Turkish as the official language of the empire. They opened up modern schools for women, allowed them to wear Western clothing, restricted polygamy, and permitted women to obtain divorces in some situations.