How did Sultan Abd al-Hamid II rule the Ottoman Empire (1876-1909) after he had taken office?. World History

He was a reactionary, autocratic leader who defined the empire as a despotic state with Pan-Islamic identification. He suspended the constitution and purged his government of the more radial reformers. He suppressed liberal and nationalist sentiments, though he continued many of the educational, economic, and technical reforms of the earlier era. He bolstered his authority by claiming that the Ottoman rulers were caliphs, speaking for the entire Islamic community. He restored the Ulama to a position of prestige and re-introduced the distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim subjects.

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